JIP: Sour Water Service Corrosion

Prediction and Assessment of Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion
Under Refinery Sour Water Service Conditions - Phase I

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InterCorr Joint Industry Program Proposal
(Revision 3)

Prepared by:
Dr. Russell D. Kane
Dr. Michael S. Cayard
InterCorr International, Inc.

Project No.: L993580
Date: August 27, 1998
Revised: March 20, 2001


Executive Summary | Introduction | Problem | Background | Solution | Benefits
Technical Approach | Experimental Program | Program Management | Relevant Experience
Administration, Schedule, Cost and Reporting | InterCorr
Action | References | Appendix I | Sponsorship Fee

Executive Summary Top

Presented herein is a proposal prepared by InterCorr International, Inc. for a technical investigation on "Prediction and Assessment of Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion under Refinery Sour Water Service Conditions". This proposal has been developed in association with Equilon Enterprises, L.L.C. to address important technical needs of the petroleum refining industry which substantially impact process unit safety and reliability issues.

Many studies have been conducted that have focused mainly on empirical findings heavily relying on evaluations of operational experience. There is currently a need for more precise and quantitative data on ammonium bisulfide corrosion for a variety of materials under simulated service conditions. These data are needed as a technical basis for improved prediction of ammonium bisulfide corrosion for use in materials selection, control of process unit operation, and assessment of chemical treatments. Furthermore, there is a major economic impact of sour water corrosion that more than justifies the sponsorship commitment and the level of funding proposed for this program.

The program involves the following tasks:

Task 1.1 – Corrosion in H2S-Dominated Alkaline Sour Water Systems (including parametric effects of H2S partial pressure)
Task 1.2 – Parametric Effects (chloride and temperature)
Task 1.3 – Influence of Oil/Water Mixtures (water carryover)
Task 1.4 – Performance of Inhibitors (ammonium polysulfide and filming amine)
Task 1.5 – Development of a Software Corrosion Prediction Tool (Predict-SW)

This program focuses on developing corrosion data in ammonium bisulfide environments using a laboratory flow loop run under simulated service conditions focusing on the effects of velocity on corrosion and the performance of commonly used alloys. This approach has already been shown to have substantial success in terms of being able to simulate ammonium bisulfide environments common to hydrocracker and hydrotreated reactor effluent streams. The results from initial tests described in Subtask 1.1.1 are already complete and have been utilized to evaluate and improve plant operations. These data will be made available to the program sponsors immediately upon startup of the program. The balance of the data will be made available in reports and in the software provided to the sponsors over the two year period of the program.

As a result of joint industry sponsorship of this program, each participating sponsor company will be required to pay only a small portion (<10 percent) of the total program cost. Maximum benefit is being given to the Original Sponsors that join at the start of the program. Furthermore, the results and the associated software from this program will be held in confidence among the sponsoring companies for a period of at least two years from their release to the program sponsors. Late-sponsor and Non-sponsor companies desiring to obtain the program results and software during this confidentiality period will have to pay a fee up to 50 percent higher than that paid by the Original Sponsors. This arrangement gives program sponsors maximum leveraging of their sponsorship fee.

Introduction Top

Presented herein is a proposal prepared by InterCorr International, Inc. for a technical investigation on "Prediction and Assessment of Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion under Refinery Sour Water Service Conditions". This proposal has been developed in association with Equilon Enterprises, L.L.C. to address important technical needs of the petroleum refining industry which substantially impact process unit safety and reliability issues. It has been developed to solicit multiclient support to sustain a significant joint industry sponsored investigation in this technical area. The program is currently envisioned as a two phase effort as described herein. However, this proposal focuses on the details of Phase I for which sponsorship and funding is now being sought.

A meeting was held with potential sponsors in September 1998, to review the first version of this proposal. This revised proposal was developed based on the feedback received from interested parties during and following this meeting. The program now includes a stronger focus on the investigation of corrosion in H2S-dominated sour water systems as are commonly found in refinery hydrocracker and hydrotreater applications. This was accomplished by moving tasks from Phase II into the Phase I program on the influence of chloride, water carryover in hydrocarbon systems and inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of typical materials of construction in these systems. These changes were made because of the requirements for more quantitative information in these areas with which more accurate and efficient engineering and operational decisions can be made.

Problem Top

The subject of alkaline sour water (ammonium bisulfide) corrosion in petroleum refineries over the past 25 years has been addressed in the literature [1]. However, despite the prevalence of sour water corrosion problems in refining operations, there is very little ammonium bisulfide corrosion data published in the open literature. Additionally, most of these studies do not take into account velocity / shear stress (that appears to be a critical variable) and have not investigated a wide range of exposure conditions. The approach used in many studies has been to focus on empirical findings heavily relying on evaluations of operational experience. There is currently a need for more precise and quantitative data on ammonium bisulfide corrosion for a variety of materials under simulated service conditions. These data are needed as a technical basis for improved prediction of ammonium bisulfide corrosion for use in materials selection, control of process unit operation, and assessment of chemical treatments.

Background Top

Previous Investigations Top

Perhaps the most notable article is Piehl’s paper [2] describing a survey conducted by the NACE T-8 committee covering corrosion in the reactor effluent air coolers and associated piping in 42 hydrocrackers and hydrotreaters. Analysis of the survey results established that sour water corrosion was mild to negligible when the concentration of ammonium bisulfide was 2 percent or less and the velocity was 20 ft/sec or less. This experience has been generally utilized by the industry for control of sour water corrosion in hydroprocessing unit reactor effluent air coolers, and has served the industry well when followed. Although an actual corrosion threshold was not identified by the survey results, it was noted that corrosion rates may be severe above 3 to 4 percent ammonium bisulfide concentration.

Damin and McCoy [3] reported results of laboratory corrosion tests conducted in a stirred autoclave over the ammonium bisulfide concentration range of 10 to 45 percent. They measured low corrosion rates for carbon steel and 316 stainless steel up to about 35 percent ammonium bisulfide concentration. Above that, the corrosion rate of both materials increased rapidly to extremely high rates of attack. Their test results appear to demonstrate the presence of a threshold ammonium bisulfide concentration at which the corrosion resistance of the materials changes dramatically. They postulate that this is the result of the formation of a metal ammonium complex that could act to strip the normally protective iron sulfide film from the metal surface. It should be noted that the 35 percent concentration threshold was observed at near-stagnant conditions (actual velocity in the stirred autoclave was estimated to be 1 to 2 ft/sec).

The only laboratory corrosion data [4] documenting the effect of velocity on ammonium bisulfide corrosion was reported by Scherrer et. al. In their tests, conducted with 4.5 to 10 percent ammonium bisulfide, the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by 40 to 64 percent when increasing the velocity from 11 to 21 ft/sec, the highest velocity tested.

Predictive Capabilities Top

It is readily evident that there is currently insufficient corrosion data to fully understand the corrosiveness of ammonium bisulfide solutions over a wide range of concentration and velocity. A recent API survey on corrosion in refinery sour water systems also indicated similar findings. The effect of other parameters such as pH, temperature, partial pressures of H2S and NH3, and solution contaminants such as oxygen, chlorides, and cyanides are not quantified. Additionally, compared to carbon steel, there is even less corrosion data available for many alloys commonly used in this service. For example, no data was found for alloy 2205, which in recent years has been used in the higher concentration systems. In the past experience surveys have been conducted, but have restricted applicability due to limited availability of information. However, these studies have identified the extent of corrosion problems in process units handling alkaline sour water and the critical needs related to these units in terms of improving predictive capabilities and system reliability.

Some operating companies and process licensers have developed their own procedures for controlling ammonium bisulfide corrosion of carbon steel based on operating experience. In many instances, these permit concentrations of ammonium bisulfide exceeding the 2 percent recommended by Piehl, perhaps up to the 8 to 10 percent range, while maintaining the 20 ft/sec maximum velocity criteria. Furthermore, there are some hydroprocessing units with carbon steel effluent systems that have actually operated for periods of time with ammonium bisulfide concentration in the 15 to 20 percent range.

It has not been uncommon for hydroprocessing units, designed to handle a given ammonium bisulfide concentration, to be exposed to higher concentrations when the nitrogen level in the feed is increased without a corresponding increase in the injection rate of wash water. This usually results in increased corrosion and in some cases unit reliability problems and unscheduled shutdowns. Over the last 5 to 10 years, there have been several major incidents where ammonium bisulfide corrosion caused loss of containment in hydroprocessing units that resulted in damage/lost production on the order of $50,000,000.00. There have also been failures in the overhead systems of some sour water stripper columns that resulted in significant reliability impacts. Some of these involved rapid corrosion of alloys such as 316 SS and alloy 800 which were previously thought to be resistant in this service. The economic impact of such problems is major and more than justifies the commitment and the level of funding proposed for this program.

Solution Top

InterCorr International, Inc., in collaboration with Equilon Enterprises, L.L.C. whom has been actively investigating sour water corrosion, proposes a joint industry sponsored program that has been specifically designed to generate useful engineering data and expand the understanding of the ammonium bisulfide corrosion process. This information will be used as a basis for the development of a more accurate and comprehensive predictive tool including assessment methodologies for control of ammonium bisulfide corrosion of a wide range of materials of construction to help attain safe and reliable operation of process units handling ammonium bisulfide.

Benefits Top

As a result of joint industry sponsorship of this program, each participating sponsor company will be required to pay only a small portion (<10 percent) of the total program cost. Furthermore, the results and the associated software from this program will be held in confidence among the sponsoring companies for a period of at least two years from their release to the program sponsors. Non-sponsor companies desiring to obtain the program results and software during this confidentiality period will have to pay a fee 50 percent higher than that paid by the Original Sponsors. This arrangement gives program sponsors maximum leveraging of their sponsorship fee.

An important benefit to joining sponsors will be the immediate access to a substantial quantity of test results already available that have been generated on a sour water flow loop that currently exists at Equilon Enterprises, L.L.C.. These results will be presented and discussed in the program kick-off meeting. They will show the corrosion performance of selected steels and corrosion resistant alloys over a range of relevant sour water service conditions. These initial investigations have focused on defining corrosive conditions in H2S dominated systems with 50 psia H2S partial pressure - See Subtask 1.1.1.

Furthermore, the results generated during the balance of the program will provide an engineering and technical basis for expanded assessment methodologies and a predictive tool on which to evaluate materials selection decisions, operational controls and chemical treatment in refinery process units handling sour water effluent. This information should have significant economic benefits in terms of increased reliability, reduced failures and more efficient materials selection and chemical treatment. Finally, program sponsors will benefit by being able to have access to the same flow loop apparatus at InterCorr for conducting proprietary tests on a preferred basis.

Technical Approach Top

Over the past several years, an extensive engineering/research study has been in progress at Equilon Enterprises focusing on developing corrosion data in ammonium bisulfide environments using a laboratory flow loop run under simulated service conditions. This work, while only partially complete, has demonstrated substantial success in terms of being able to simulate ammonium bisulfide environments common to sour water effluent streams. The results from these tests have been utilized to evaluate and improve plant operations. However, the range of sour water conditions in refinery operations is broad. An expanded program is needed to address a significant set of sour water conditions from which more accurate predictive tools and practical assessment methodologies can be developed.

The experimental method used in the program has been to define sets of test conditions that are relevant to refinery operations. Once baseline data have been established, several tests have followed which explored the role of a specific variable (e.g. ammonium bisulfide concentration or velocity) in separate tests. This approach is in specific contrast to a statistical experimental design where a mathematically determinant matrix of tests is defined which involve changing multiple variables with each test. While, in some cases the statistical approach has certain merits, the single variable approach is being employed in this study to define the specific regions of corrosion performance for each alloy while paying close attention to conditions where large incremental changes in corrosion rate are occurring (i.e. threshold conditions). This latter approach is admittedly slower but it (1) allows for more direct interim evaluation of the test results, (2) utilizes the interim results to define the selection of subsequent test conditions, (3) provides the ability to focus the studies under test conditions that relate to specific operating conditions of high interest, and (4) facilitate input of data and model development for a software tool for prediction and assessment of alkaline sour water corrosion.

Thus far, one of the major accomplishments in the initial effort has been the demonstrated ability to overcome experimental difficulties involving oxygen contamination in a laboratory apparatus. Additionally, both practical experience and the experimental data show that velocity/shear stress is a critical parameter in ammonium bisulfide corrosion. Consequently, the sour water flow loop design currently in use can handle the full range of test conditions anticipated in this program. This will allow for the major portion of the program efforts to go toward the development of engineering data.

Experimental Program Top

The present study will involve a series of tasks containing sets of tests developed to address specific questions related to ammonium bisulfide corrosion. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the program could involve two phases of work.

Phase I Top

This proposal specifically addresses Phase I and involves the development of corrosion rate data for a range of alloys, environments and velocities related to H2S-dominated systems as are commonly found in refinery hydrocracker and hydrotreater applications. The proposed Phase I work will also include studies of the effects of temperature and chloride, sour water / liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, and the performance of inhibitors. This phase will culminate in the development of an engineering data base and predictive tool embodied in a software format similar to Predict® developed by InterCorr in past programs and currently utilized by major companies worldwide.

Phase II Top

The anticipated Phase II program will be conducted only after substantial completion has been achieved in Phase I. Participation in the Phase I program does not require a commitment to join the Phase II effort. However, participation in the Phase II effort will be open only to those companies who have paid the sponsorship fee for Phase I. As currently envisioned, Phase II will expand the engineering database developed in Phase I. It will focus on NH3-dominated sour water systems as found in some sour water strippers. It will also include topics of related interest such as the effects of cyanides on sour water corrosion. The second phase will also include further work to incorporate the additional data into the predictive software tool. However, the specific scope is not currently defined and will be only developed following substantial discussion and input from the Phase I sponsors.

Phase I Program - Engineering Data Development Top

Task 1.1 - H2S-Dominated Alkaline Sour Water Systems Top

The first task in the Phase I program will involve the evaluation of H2S-dominated alkaline sour water systems having moderate to high H2S partial pressures resulting in generally low to intermediate pH (7 to 9). These conditions are common in hydrocracker and hydrotreater applications.

Subtask 1.1.1 - 50 psia H2S Partial Pressure Systems. This work will focus on the development of corrosion rate data in H2S-dominated systems with PH2S = 50 psia and a temperature of 130 F (55 C). A range of velocities will be investigated ranging from 0 to 80 ft/sec. The materials to be included in this task are carbon steel, AISI 410 (12Cr), AISI 316, alloy 2205, alloy 400 (Ni-Cu), alloy 20Cb3, and alloy 825. Specific materials will be selected based on the anticipated severity of the particular conditions in each test. Several potential additional alloys are alloy 625 and alloy C-276. These may be included in tests that are anticipated to be particularly aggressive from the standpoint of ammonium bisulfide corrosion.

The results from this task should be available to sponsors at the program kick-off meeting when the necessary minimum number of companies establish their participation in the program. It is anticipated that this task will involve a total of 32 tests. This is based on an expected matrix including 8 NH4HS concentrations and 4 velocities. However, the exact number of tests may vary depending on the level of effort required for accurate simulation.

Subtask 1.1.2 - Parametric Effects of H2S Partial Pressure.This task will involve another series of tests designed to obtain corrosion rate data in H2S-dominated systems (as in Subtask 1.1.1) but at a range of H2S partial pressure including PH2S = 30 psia, 100 psia and 150 psia at a temperature of 130 F (55 C). Note data is already available at PH2S = 50 psia from Subtask 1.1.1. A total of approximately 28 tests (incomplete matrix covering 8 NH4HS concentrations, 4 velocities and 3 additional H2S partial pressures) are anticipated. Alloys to be included are: carbon steel, AISI 410, AISI 304, AISI 316, alloy 2205, alloy 2507, alloy AL6XN, alloy 20Cb3, alloy 800 and alloy 825. Specific materials will be selected based on the anticipated severity of the particular conditions in each test. Several additional potential alloys are alloy 625 and alloy C-276. These may be included in tests that are anticipated to be particularly aggressive from the standpoint of ammonium bisulfide corrosion.

Task 1.2. – Parametric Effects on Sour Water Corrosion Top

Task 1.1 has been designed based on relatively simple matrices. This allows for maximum experimental control to clearly establish trends in corrosion rate as an independent function of a limited number of variables, namely concentration, velocity and H2S partial pressure. This approach will produce specific baseline conditions for H2S-dominated sour water conditions. Once that task is substantially complete and the fundamental trends identified at the baseline conditions, effort will be placed on defining the influences of other key variables that would be expected to impact alkaline sour water corrosion. Based on the existing knowledge of corrosion in sour water environments, the two key parametric effects that need to be addressed for H2S-dominated systems are: (1) temperature and (2) chloride concentration.

Subtask 1.2.1 – Temperature Effects. This subtask will examine the influence of solution temperature on the corrosion rate of selected materials in combination with velocity and NH4HS concentration. A total of 16 tests are estimated based on 4 NH4HS concentrations, 2 velocities and 2 temperatures. The two proposed temperatures to be used in subtask 1.2.1 are 200 F and 275 F. Data for a third temperature (130 F) will already be available from the previous task. The specific alloys to be evaluated in these tests and the exact test conditions will be selected based on the initial experimental results obtained in Task 1.1. A total of at least six alloys will be evaluated under each test condition.

Subtask 1.2.2 – Chloride Effects. This subtask will examine the influence of chloride on the corrosion rate of selected materials in combination with velocity and NH4HS concentration. A total of 16 tests are estimated based on 4 NH4HS concentrations, 2 velocities and 2 chloride concentrations. The proposed test sequence will be to start the testing on the chloride effects at a chloride concentration of 100 ppm. Data for zero chloride will already be available from the previous tasks. The third chloride level will be selected in the range of either 500 to 1000 ppm or 20 to 50 ppm depending on the results from the tests performed at 100 ppm chloride. The specific alloys to be evaluated in these tests and the exact test conditions will be selected based on the initial experimental results obtained in Task 1.1. A total of at least six alloys will be evaluated under each test condition.

Task 1.3 - Effect of Hydrocarbon/Sour Water Mixtures (Water Carryover)

Oftentimes, refinery liquid hydrocarbon systems can become contaminated with sour water carryover. Additionally, sour water environments can also contain substantial amounts of hydrocarbons resulting in the presence of multiphase environments (oil / gas / water). Corrosion in multiphase environments is a complex subject often requiring highly specialized and sophisticated experimental techniques. InterCorr has developed special techniques, referred to as "multiphase emulation" (MPE). These techniques involve flow modeling procedures to represent and quantify the wall shear stresses produced by the flow. They also include procedures to simulate conditions of multiphase flow and corrosion in a laboratory flow loop containing liquid hydrocarbon, water and dissolved reactive gases. These techniques will be utilized to evaluate corrosion in multiphase hydrocarbon/sour water mixtures commonly encountered in refining operations.

A total of 18 tests are anticipated which will involve 3 NH4HS concentrations, 2 velocities and 3  hydrocarbon / sour water mixtures. Currently, the proposed hydrocarbon water mixtures to be examined in this subtask include the range from 10% hydrocarbon to 98% hydrocarbon. Two hydrocarbons are being studied including a heavy and a light. The exact test conditions will be based on the results in the previously completed tasks. At least six alloys will be evaluated in each test.

Task 1.4 - Performance of Chemical Treatments in Sour Water Environments

Task 1.4 will evaluate the performance of selected chemical treatments on ammonium bisulfide corrosion. The aim of this task is not to screen or evaluate all possible chemical treatments. Rather, the matrix of tests in this task is focused on demonstrating the range of performance of commonly utilized chemical treatments for mitigating corrosion in sour water systems such as polysulfide treatments or organic film forming compounds.

A total of about 18 tests are anticipated based on 3 NH4HS concentrations, 3 velocities and 2 chemical treatments. The specific chemical treatments will be selected based on the requirements of the program as defined by the sponsoring companies. At present it is anticipated that these will include the following two chemical treatments: (1) ammonium polysulfide and (2) a generic film forming amine compound such as an imidazoline formulation. Once these requirements have been fully defined through discussions with sponsors, proposals for candidate chemical treatments will be reviewed from sponsor companies. Preference will be given to chemical treatment company sponsors to provide the treatment chemicals. They will also be requested to provide any additional technical support required, thus helping ensure the success of this effort.

Task 1.5 - Development of Predict-SW

Once a significant portion of the data from the Phase I program is available, InterCorr will incorporate the data from the experimental effort into a new software program. This will be similar in nature and functionality to its currently available Predictâ program (See Appendix I). Predict is a user-friendly Windows-based program that uses inputs of typical operating parameters to assess corrosion rates of steels in multiphase oilfield production environments containing H2S and CO2. The new software tool originating from this program (Predict-SW) will incorporate this program data and any other appropriate data and experience (1) available in the published literature on ammonium bisulfide corrosion, (2) submitted from sponsor companies on a voluntary basis and (3) provided in applicable industry standards. During the development, the sponsors will review the technical basis of the software and have access to a Beta-version of the program for review and comment. At the conclusion of the Phase I program, sponsors will obtain a single user license for the Predict-SW software. The Predict-SW software will not be made available to non-sponsors of Phase I for a period of two years after completion of the Phase I program.

Anticipated Phase II Program Top

As mentioned previously, the scope of the problems associated with ammonium bisulfide corrosion in refinery process units are quite broad. In order to provide a coherent effort and sufficient breath and depth, it was necessary to defer certain topics to a Phase II effort. Based on the utility and benefits of the engineering database and prediction software developed in the Phase I program, it is anticipated that many of the sponsors in the Phase I program will also be interested to participate in the Phase II effort. Please note the following important points:

  1. A commitment to join the Phase II program is not required to participate in the Phase I program.
  2. Participation in the Phase II effort will be open only to those companies who have paid the sponsorship fee for Phase I.

Program Management Top

The technical effort described in this Phase I program proposal will involve testing capabilities and technical specialists from both InterCorr International, Inc. and Equilon. InterCorr will provide both technical capabilities and expertise and important business functions that will include responsibilities for overall program management, contractual matters and development of and liaison with the sponsoring group. Personnel from Equilon will be responsible for a portion of the experimental activities in the program along with providing technical expertise critical to the strong engineering focus of the program and evaluation of the engineering data that will result.

The Program Manager for the Phase I effort will be Dr. Michael S. Cayard, President of InterCorr International, Inc. Dr. Cayard has over ten years of experience in materials and corrosion engineering and research activities. Specifically, he has led numerous contract efforts for client companies and has served as Program Manager and/or Principal Investigator to several major joint industry sponsored programs including those in the areas of wet H2S cracking and API funded research efforts in large-scale evaluation of these phenomena. He will be assisted by Mr. Sridhar Srinivasan, IT Manager of the Software and Internet Group, for software programming expertise and Dr. Russell D. Kane, Senior Consultant of InterCorr, as technical advisor in the areas of corrosion simulation and laboratory testing in sour water environments. Equilon has designated Mr. Richard J. Horvath, a recognized corrosion specialist in sour water corrosion, who has been associated with these studies for several years as Co-Principal Investigator for the program.

Relevant Experience Top

InterCorr International Inc. will conduct the experimental program described herein in association with Equilon Enterprises, L.L.C. Combined, both companies have the unique technical expertise and the specialized laboratory and computer programming capabilities vital to the success of this multidisciplinary program.

InterCorr International, Inc.

InterCorr has a track record of successful completion of major joint industry sponsored research and engineering data development programs with specific emphasis on the needs of the petroleum industry. This includes work in the areas of wet H2S cracking, high temperature naphthenic acid and sulfidic corrosion, and sour water corrosion. InterCorr has developed and operated sophisticated flow loop systems for simulation of petroleum service environments under conditions of high pressure, high temperature and high flow rate also involving exposure to H2S, CO2, crude oil and a variety of aqueous solutions.

Capabilities of Equilon Enterprises

InterCorr has negotiated with Equilon with extensive experience in ammonium bisulfide corrosion to collaborate in this program. This company has unique capabilities and technical expertise important to this program in the areas of ammonium bisulfide corrosion from the standpoint of NH4HS chemistry, corrosion characteristics and practical plant experience. It has the necessary analytical capabilities to assess ionic equilibria using computer simulation techniques that provide the link for determining exact test loading conditions that simulate specific plant operating conditions. Their specialists have demonstrated the ability to conduct tests under sour water conditions using the required combination of analytical methods, anaerobic conditions, and range of velocities required for the program. They will also be providing the Subtask 1.1.1 test data that should be immediately available to the program sponsors at the start of the program.

Program Administration, Schedule, Cost and Reporting Top

The program presented herein will be funded by joint industry support. Each participating sponsor company will be required to pay only a small portion (<10 percent) of the total program cost. This benefit provides substantial cost savings and leveraging of valuable corporate funds while providing access to the results from a major technical effort in sour water corrosion.

Administration

To qualify as a sponsor of the program, each company must sign a participation agreement and make timely payments of the program sponsorship fee. The greatest economic leveraging will be given to the Original Sponsors of the program that establish their participation at the beginning of the Phase I program. Sponsors that join later will be classified as Late Sponsors and will incur an additional late fee of 25 percent after the first three months of the program. This late fee will be increased to 40 percent for those Late Sponsors that join after the first 12 months of the effort.

Furthermore, the results and the associated software from this program will be held in confidence among the sponsoring companies for a period of at least two years from its release to the program sponsors. Non-sponsor companies desiring to obtain the program results and software during this confidentiality period will have to pay a fee 50 percent higher than that paid by the Original Sponsors. This arrangement gives program sponsors maximum leveraging of their sponsorship fee.

Schedule

The Phase I program is anticipated to run over a period of approximately thirty (30) months. The program will start when nine (9) companies establish their participation. At this level of participation, Task 1.1 (H2S-Dominated Systems which includes subtasks 1.1.1 and 1.1.2) can be substantially completed and Version 1.0 of Predict-SW (partial completion of Task 1.5) provided to the sponsoring companies. However, some experiments from subtask 1.1.2 will be deferred until thirteen (13) company join so that initial experiments from Task 1.3 (Influence of Oil/Water Mixtures) can also be conducted at the start-up level.

As additional sponsors join the program, the experimental activities will be expanded. Once thirteen (13) sponsors join, Task 1.1 and Task 1.2 (Parametric Effects which includes subtasks 1.2.1 and 1.2.2) can be completed and the Predict-SW program updated with the new data and associated rules. When at least seventeen (17) companies agree to participate, Tasks 1.3 (Influence of Oil/Water Mixtures) and 1.4 (Performance of Inhibitors) can be completed and the Predict-SW software updated again based on the additional data.

Sponsorship Fee

This effort was completed in 2003 and is now available for Non-Sponsor participation through a multi-year licensing agreement under the following terms*:

Payment 1 - $30,000 (March 2004)
Payment 2 - $30,000 (January 2005)
Payment 3 - $28,350 (January 2006)

* does not include any sales commissions to agents or third parties that may be required in certain countries. Participation includes access to all information available on a broad range of commonly used alloys (program reports, data sheets, final report, users group) and a single user license for Predict®-SW software that incorporates all information and rules developed in the Phase I program. This program has lead to a totally new ways to design, evaluate and operate refinery sour water systems. Also, included in this licensing package are 8 hours of assistance and training related to the use of program data and the single user Predict®-SW software. A multi-user version of the Predict®-SW software is also available at extra cost.

IMPORTANT - participation in Phase I is a prerequisite for participation in the Phase II Sour Water Program. However, it is not mandatory that companies participating in Phase I also participate in Phase II.

Reporting

At the completion of each task, the data will be organized into a topical report and supporting database summarizing the results and major findings. These reports will include analysis of the data and interpretation relative to important aspects of the results. These data will be provided in both tabular and graphic form. Where possible, plots will be made showing regions of corrosion behavior using isocorrosion lines for the alloys evaluated to the extent possible from data obtained in the various tests. All program report documents will be password protected and archived on the program web site to be maintained by InterCorr for at least the duration of the program. This feature will provide ease of access to the program results to authorized sponsor company representatives.

InterCorr International, Inc. Top

InterCorr International, Inc., (located in Houston, Texas; formerly CLI International, Inc.) is an independent technology company that specializes in the technology needs of industry in the area of materials and corrosion research and engineering. It has three operating divisions that provide

  • Technical and research support services
  • Specialty equipment design, manufacturing and marketing
  • Corrosion and flow modeling, software development and Internet-based information services

InterCorr has over 15 years of commercial history in materials research and corrosion engineering including materials selection, evaluation of materials, coatings and treatment chemicals, corrosion, fracture and fatigue testing, failure analysis and technical consulting. It has worked with over 850 clients in 31 countries worldwide and has participated in and developed over 15 joint industry sponsored programs.

Action Top

We look forward to your company’s participation in this exciting, new technical program that is in support of the research and engineering needs of the petroleum refining industry. If you would like to receive agreements to establish your company’s sponsorship or if you would like further information, please contact the following:

Dr. Russell D. Kane
Dr. Michael S. Cayard

InterCorr International, Inc.
14503 Bammel North Houston Road, Suite 300
Houston, Texas USA 77014
Tele: 281-444-2282
Fax: 281-444-0246
Email: inquiry@intercorr.com

References Top

  1. ASM Handbook, Volume 13, Corrosion, ASM International.
  2. R.L. Piehl, "Survey of Corrosion in Hydrocracker Effluent Air Coolers", Materials Performance, Vol 15 (1), January 1976, pp 15-20.
  3. D.G. Damin and J. D. McCoy, "Prevention of Corrosion in Hydrodesulfurizer Air Coolers and Condensers", Materials Performance, Vol 17 (12), December 1978, pp 23-26 (see also NACE Corrosion/78, paper # 131).
  4. C. Scherrer, M. Durrieu, and G. Jarno, "Distillate and Resid Hydroprocessing: Coping with High Concentrations of Ammonium Bisulfide in the Process Water", Materials Performance, Vol 19 (11), November 1980, pp 25-31 (see also NACE Corrosion/79, paper # 27).


Appendix I Top

Predict® Software Description


Executive Summary | Introduction | Problem | Background | Solution | Benefits
Technical Approach | Experimental Program | Program Management | Relevant Experience
Administration, Schedule, Cost and Reporting | InterCorr
Action | References | Appendix I | Sponsorship Fee

 


Privacy Statement

InterCorr International, Inc.
14503 Bammel-N. Houston, Suite 300
Houston, Texas USA 77014
Tel: 281 444-2282, Fax: 281 444-0246
E-mail: inquiry@intercorr.com
copyright 2000 InterCorr International, Inc
.