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The organization of different frames and the flow of data in the Socrates system is shown below. The earlier versions of Socrates system performed material selection by applying constraints at different hierarchical levels. The current Windows implementation is more flexible in that the user can use and apply constraints at any specific level without regard to the hierarchy.

The constraints are organized such that a comprehensive initial solution set of applicable materials is refined and reduced in size as the system proceeds through the different levels.

* Level 1: Material selection through Application Requirements
* Level 2: Material selection through Environmental Characterization
* Level 3: Evaluation of SCC
* Level 4: Evaluation of Localized Corrosion / Pitting Index
* Level 5: Special requirements such as SSC
* Level 6: NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156 (Visit for more information)
Flow Chart

Socrates Flow Chart


At level 1, the initial set of applicable materials is obtained by determining the application for which the CRA is to be selected. If the application is not known, all classes of materials known to the system become part of the solution set. These include the following classes of materials:
Stainless Steels: Conventional austenitic, high alloy austenitic, martensitic, precipitation hardened, duplex and ferritic.
Precipitation hardened and solid solution nickel-base alloys, nickel copper alloys.
Cobalt-base, titanium and zirconium alloys.

The requirements (or data) at this level include yield strength, material condition (heat treatment/cold work) and hardness limitations. At this level, the requirements operate independently and hence are applied sequentially. For example, a material in a required yield strength (SMYS) range (say, 110-130) can also be cold worked. Here, materials available in the required yield strength range are selected prior to applying the material condition (cold worked) requirement.

At level 2, the environment is characterized in terms of severity for general corrosion using the following environmental parameters:

* H2S and CO2 partial pressure
* Bicarbonates
* pH
* Minimum operating temperature
* Chlorides and Sulfur
* Water to gas ratio and gas to oil ratio
* Operating Temperature

The parameters used in the material evaluation based on the environment operate concurrently. An environmental severity index, based on the environmental parameters, is computed to represent the synergistic effect of the different parameters operating in concurrence. The environmental severity index is determined based on the pH, chloride content and the H2S partial pressure of the environment. The program determines the pH based on acid gas partial pressures, bicarbonates and temperature. Typical environmental variables and corresponding severity indices are shown in the Table below.

Low (pH <= 4) Moderate (4 < pH <=5.5) High (pH >= 5.5)
H2S pp <= 1.5 psi 20 15 10 Low (Cl- <= 10,000 ppm)
" 25 20 15 Moderate (10,000 < Cl- <=100,000ppm)
" 30 25 20 High (Cl- > 100,000 ppm)
1.5 psi < H2S pp<=15 psi 30 15 10 Low
" 50 20 20 Moderate
" 60 50 30 High
Environmental Severity Chart for Sour Systems with GOR >= 5000

The system, at this point, also determines applicability of steels with inhibitor systems. Steels are evaluated from a stand point of maximum potential corrosion rate. This evaluation also includes consideration of inhibitor systems based on temperature and flow conditions.

At level 3, materials are evaluated for their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. Factors in evaluation here include,

* H2S partial pressure
* pH
* Chlorides
* Maximum operating temperature
* Material composition in terms of nickel, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten and columbium

At level 4, the materials are evaluated for their susceptibility to pitting corrosion. A Required Minimum Pitting Index (RMPI) is computed based on maximum temperature, and environmental severity determined at level 2. Further, a pitting index is computed for each of the materials in the solution set using the relation,

Pitting Index = Cr + 3.3Mo + 11N + 1.5(W + Cb)

Where Cr, Mo, N, W and Cb represent Chromium, Molybdenum, Nitrogen, Tungsten and Columbium content of the alloy. All alloys that have a pitting index greater than or equal to the RMPI are selected for further evaluation.

At level 5, all applicable materials from level 4 are evaluated for qualification based on sulfide stress cracking requirements as well as certain rules of thumb based on application requirements. The Socrates system contains 160 commonly used CRAs and their metallurgies are stored in a mdb Access database file. Socrates' ODBC capabilities ensure that the end-user can use any database management system in working with the Socrates databases. The architecture of the Socrates system also facilitates easy modification of the database and its alloys without affecting the reasoning embodied in the system or the knowledge base. The list of alloys in the Socrates system is given in Appendix I.

At level 6, all applicable materials from level 5 are evaluated for qualification based on NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156 Requirements (edition 2003). This level 6 characterization is optional and users can choose to apply or ignore this level based on their requirements.

The Socrates system also provides advice to the user on usability of steels in a given production environment. The system evaluates steels for SSC resistance and recommends feasibility of steel or inhibited steel systems as alternatives to CRAs. The system also allows the user to compare costs of using steels, inhibited steels or CRAs through a cost analysis module and a material cost database.


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InterCorr International, Inc.
14503 Bammel-N. Houston, Suite 300
Houston, Texas USA 77014
Tel: 281 444-2282, Fax: 281 444-0246
copyright 2000 InterCorr International, Inc